External appearance of mycelium and “migrating” luminescence zones with high levels of light
emission, which were observed in the mycelium after 36 days of cultivation of the fungus.
Recording was done by using the GelDoc XR Imaging System: the time of accumulation 60 sec, max.
Luminescence of the surface mycelium light-emitting wood found on Borneo Island.
After installation in a GelDoc XR Imaging System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., U.S).
The signal accumulation time 300 s (gamma 4.00, low 60021).
Puzyr A.P., Medvedeva S.E., Bondar V.S.
The use of glowing wood as a source of luminescent culture of fungus mycelium
Mycosphere 7 (1): 1–17 (2016) DOI: 10.5943/mycosphere/7/1/1
In studies of fungal bioluminescence, not only fruiting bodies and spores of the fungus, but
also samples of luminescent wood, leaf litter or soil may need to be used to derive pure mycelial
culture. This study describes an approach to isolating the culture of luminescent fungal mycelium
from samples of light-emitting wood found on Borneo Island in November-December 2013. A
GelDoc XR Imaging System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., U.S.) was used for the first time to
monitor luminescence and select luminous samples. This study shows that for successful isolation
of the culture of luminescent mycelium out of the luminescent wood found in the forest, it is
imperative to keep the samples moist (mycelium alive until there is water), while immediate and
aseptic delivery of the samples to the laboratory is not a crucial condition (inner layers of wood is
"sterile"). Investigation of the growth features of the isolated mycelium in various growing
conditions revealed some peculiar properties of its luminescence in comparison with the known
luminescent cultures of basidiomycetes. When grown on solid nutrient media, mycelium exhibits
low growth rates, long-lasting luminescence (140 days or longer), and emergence and
disappearance of local zones with high levels of light emission. Mycelium produced in submerged
culture does not emit light, and this effect must be caused by the absence or a very low level of the
luminescent reaction substrate in the biomass. The luminescence system isolated from mycelial
biomass did not induce luminescent reaction in vitro upon the addition of NADPH (recording
intensity is 60 – 100 URL/sec). We found that enzymes of the luminescence systems isolated from
mycelium pellets retained their activity and catalyzed luminescent reaction when a hot extract of
the luminous fungus Armillaria sp. (IBSO 2360) was added (near 1900 URL/sec). The same effect
was obtained after addition of hot extracts from the fruiting bodies of nonluminous higher fungi
Pholiota squarrosa, Cortinarius sp., Hypholoma capnoides and Chroogomphus rutilus (near 3500
URL/sec). The pure culture of luminescent mycelium has been registered in the Culture Collection
of IBP SB RAS as IBSO 2371; now it can be used for various in vivo and in vitro studies, including
identification of the fungus.
Medvedeva S.E., Artemenko K.S., Krivosheenko A.A., Rusinova A.G., Rodicheva E.K., Puzyr A.P., Bondar V.S.
Growth and light emission of luminous basidiomycetes cultivated on solid media and in submerged culture
Mycosphere 5 (4): 565−577 (2014) DOI: 10.5943/mycosphere/5/4/9
There are higher fungi that emit visible light; however, little is known about their
requirements for good growth and bright luminescence. Knowledge of these requirements is
extremely important for maintaining fungal cultures in laboratory conditions and preparation of
luminous mycelia for research purposes. Luminous higher fungi Panellus stipticus, Armillaria sp.
and Neonothopanus nambi isolated from different climatic areas and maintained in CCIBSO 836
(Collection of IBP SB RAS, Russia) were used for experiments. Techniques for static and
submerged cultivation of mycelia of higher fungi have been developed and optimized for the
production of samples of aerial and globular mycelia with prolonged and stable luminescence. We
investigated the growth characteristics and luminescence of mycelia cultivated in/on different
nutrient media, and the effects of deionized water and mechanical damage on the light emission of
mycelia. An increase in luminescence intensity of fungal mycelia can be obtained during
cultivation of fungi on a nutrient medium with a certain composition. A significant increase in light
emission from N. nambi mycelium can also be obtained after its incubation in water and
mechanical damage. The light emission from N. nambi mycelium was greatly enhanced after these
treatments, in contrast to the mycelia of Armillaria sp. or P. stipticus. Cultivation conditions that
enable growing mycelia with high levels of luminescence will expedite further studies to gain a
better understanding of fungal bioluminescence.