The most effective way to preserve microbiological resources is their maintaining
in modern microbial collections that have the conditions for guaranteed maintaining
and long-term deposit of the organisms isolated under the natural conditions.
The culture collections are the centers for the study of biological objects'
systematics, the development of the methods to identify cultures and to keep
them for a long time. They are also banks of information on the history of the
available strains, their properties, as well as a safe depository for cultures
[di Gastri, Younes, 1990, Grassle et al., 1991, Hawksworth, Colwell, 1992, Ivshina,
1993, Green, Bousfield, 1993, Kirsop, Kalakoutskii, 1993].
At present, culture collections of microorganisms of different kind exist in
many countries of the world. They constitute the world collection stock and
are united in various international communities, such as the European Culture
Collections' Organization (ECCO) and the World Federation of Culture Collections
(WFCC). There are three main types of microbial collections: maintenance, special
and individual ones. The objective of maintenance collections is to preserve
the diversity of systematic groups of microorganisms described to date, which
are generally represented in them by a small number of strains. Special and
individual collections are characterized by the presence of a large number of
strains of the few species of special interest [Fateeva, 1983]. Cultures maintained
in collections serve as a resource for prompt application of scientific advances
in developing new technologies and producing new preparations. Incorporation
of Russian culture collections into the Microbial Strain Data Network (MSDN)
will significantly extend the range of application of microorganisms in science
and in practice and make the necessary information more readily accessible [Kalakoutskii
et al, 1993, 1996].